TYPES, PURPOSES AND FUNCTIONS OF LUBRICANTS AND CONSERVATIONS. PART 2.

In the first part, we have examined five groups of cleaning and preservation agents classified by the purpose of their application.

In this part, the table will provide a more detailed description of the components, purposes and functions of individual types of additives and means for lubrication and preservation.

SURFACE PROTECTIVE ADDITIVES
ENGINE LUBRICANTS

ADDITIVE TYPE

PURPOSE

TYPICAL COMPOUNDS

FUNCTIONS

Anti-Wear Agent

Reduce friction and wear, and prevent scoring and seizure

Zinc dithiophosphates, organic phosphates and acid phosphates; organic sulphur and chlorine compounds; sulphurized fats, sulfides and disulfides

Chemical reaction with the metal surface to form a film with lower shear strength than the metal, thereby preventing metal-to-metal contact

Corrosion & Rust Inhibitor

Prevent corrosion and rusting of metal parts in contact with the lubricant

Zinc dithiophosphates, metal phenolates, basic metal sulfonates, fatty acids and amines

Preferential adsorption of polar constituent on metal surface to provide a protective film and/or neutralization of corrosive acids

Detergent

Keep surfaces free of deposits and neutralize corrosive acids

Metallo-organic compounds of barium, calcium and magnesium phenolates, phosphates and sulfonates

Chemical reaction with sludge and varnish precursors to neutralize them and keep them soluble

Dispersant

Keep insoluble soot dispersed in the lubricant

Polymeric alkylthiophosphonates and alkylsuccinimides, organic complexes containing nitrogen compounds

Contaminants are bonded by polar attraction to dispersant molecules, prevented from agglomerating and kept in suspension due to solubility of dispersant

Friction Modifier

Alter coefficient of friction

Organic fatty acids and amines, lard oil, high molecular weight organic phosphorus and phosphoric acid esters

Preferential adsorption of surface-active materials

PERFORMANCE ADDITIVES
ENGINE LUBRICANTS

Pour Point Depressant

Enable lubricant to flow at low temperatures

Alkylated naphthalene and phenolic polymers, polymethacrylates

Modify wax crystal formation to reduce interlocking

Seal Swell Agent

Swell elastomeric seals

Organic phosphates, aromatics, halogenated hydrocarbons

Chemical reaction with elastomer to cause slight swell

Viscosity Improver

Reduce the rate of viscosity change with temperature

Polymers and copolymers of methacrylates, butadiene olefins and alkylated styrenes

Polymers expand with increasing temperature to counteract oil thinning

LUBRICANT PROTECTIVE ADDITIVES
ENGINE LUBRICANTS

Anti-Foaming

Prevent lubricant from forming a persistent foam

Silicone polymers and organic copolymers

Reduce surface tension to speed collapse of foam

Anti-Oxidant

Retard oxidative decomposition

Zinc dithiophosphates, hindered phenols, aromatic amines, sulphurized phenols

Decompose peroxides and terminate free-radical reactions

Metal Deactivator

Reduce catalytic effect of metals on oxidation rate

Organic complexes containing nitrogen or sulphur, amines, sulphides and phosphites

Form inactive film on metal surfaces by complexing with metallic ions

In general, when choosing the appropriate agents, the focus should be made on the quality and compliance of lubricants with specific industry specifications. This will ensure the maximum effect from the use of lubricants and preservation agents, as well as reduce risks to the health of workers.

The article was prepared based on the sources:

1) Noria Corporation: Lubricant Additives - A Practical Guide

2) Wiki ТНТУ: Пластичні мастильні матеріали

3) Технічна енциклопедія TechTrend: Імбіговані мастила

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